BIOL 202 - Anatomy & Physiology I
4 Credit: (3 lecture, 2 lab, 0 clinical) 5 Contact Hours: [BIOL 100 or BIOL 105 or BIOL 121 ]
BIOL202 is an introduction to basic structural and functional aspects of the human body. The contribution of each body system to the total well-being of the individual is emphasized, as well as the interdependence of the body systems. Specific topics studied include anatomical terminology, chemical basis of life, cells, cellular metabolism, tissues, integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, and special senses. Special emphasis is placed upon homeostatic mechanisms whenever feasible. Laboratory exercises include dissection and physiological experiments pertinent to the topics covered. Students have an option to observe a human cadaver.
OFFERED: every semester
Students should not wear contact lenses in the laboratory and may wish to wear lab coats to protect their clothing. Some of the laboratory procedures or dissections may require the use or exposure to various chemicals. MSDS sheets are available upon request by the student. Health concerns should be discussed with a personal physician.
Viewing or use of the cadaver by the student is optional but highly recommended.
Course Goals/ Objectives/ Competencies:
Goal 1: Students will explain the overall structure and organization of the human body from cell to system.
- Explain the relationship between anatomy and physiology.
- Describe major characteristics of life.
- Explain the levels of organization found in the human body.
- Describe the process of homeostatic regulation (using body temperature as an example).
- Distinguish between negative and positive feedback.
- Use anatomical terms correctly (such as body regions, directional terms, and anatomical planes).
- Identify body regions, cavities, and quadrants.
Goal 2: Students will explain the basis of human life at the atomic and molecular levels.
- Define atom, element, molecule, compound, electrolyte, inorganic, organic.
- Use the periodic table of elements to describe the basic structure of any atom.
- Distinguish between ions and isotopes.
- Distinguish between ionic, non-polar covalent, polar covalent, and hydrogen bonds.
- Distinguish between decomposition, synthesis, and exchange reactions.
- Explain how the molecular structure of water relates to its important properties in the human body.
- Distinguish between acids, bases, and salts.
- Distinguish between the macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) and building blocks.
- Describe the most common macromolecules and building blocks.
Goal 3: Students will explain the basis for human life in terms of cellular structure, function, and metabolism.
- Explain the functions of the phospholipid bi-layer by describing its structure.
- Describe the various methods of moving particles in and out of cells.
- Identify the organelles and describe their functions.
- Describe the role of enzymes in chemical reactions.
- Relate the structure of the nucleus to its functions.
- Describe the structure of DNA, RNA, and chromosomes.
- Explain the process of protein synthesis.
- Briefly describe the process of aerobic cellular respiration.
- Describe the major events of the cell cycle.
- Explain the relationship between DNA, cell cycle, and cancer.
Goal 4: Students will distinguish between the 4 major tissue types.
- Describe the structure, function, and location of epithelial tissues.
- Relate the structure of cell junctions to their function in epithelial tissues.
- Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands.
- Describe the structure, function, and location of connective tissues.
- Contrast the functions of epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue.
- Describe the generic tissue response to injury.
- Describe types of membranes found in the human body.
Goal 5: Students will relate the structures to the functions of the integumentary system.
- Describe the layers tissues of the integumentary system.
- Describe the location and function of the accessory structures.
- Relate the functions of the integumentary system to the layers, tissues, cells, and other structures.
- Discuss how skin health is affected by cancer, injury, diseases, hormones, aging, etc.
Goal 6: Students will relate the structures to the functions of the skeletal system.
- List the functions of the skeletal system.
- Describe the composition of bone tissues, cartilage tissues, and dense regular connective tissue.
- Describe and identify the macro- and microscopic structures of bone.
- Describe the function of macro/micro bone structures.
- Describe bone development, growth, and the role bones play in calcium homeostasis.
- Describe factors and conditions affecting bone health.
- Identify bones and major bone features as specified by the master A&P I list (maintained by lead faculty).
- Distinguish between the three main types of joints classified by range of motion.
- Distinguish between the subtypes of synovial joints classified by structure.
- Describe the general and accessory structures of a synovial joint.
- Distinguish between the different joint movements.
- Describe selected joint diseases and conditions.
Goal 7: Students will relate the structures to the functions of the muscular system.
- Distinguish between smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscle tissues.
- Describe the structure of a skeletal muscle organ.
- Describe structure of the muscle fiber.
- Distinguish between different muscle proteins.
- Describe the arrangements of muscle proteins in a sarcomere.
- Explain, in detail, the process of muscle contraction.
- Explain the importance of myoglobin, creatine phosphate and cellular respiration to the process of muscle contraction.
- Relate muscle fatigue to anaerobic respiration and the process of muscle contraction.
- Distinguish between fast and slow muscle fibers.
- Describe selected muscle diseases and conditions.
- Name the major muscles of the body as specified by the master A&P I list (maintained by lead faculty).
Goal 8: Students will relate the structures to the functions of the nervous system and special senses.
- Distinguish between the basic functions of neurons and neuroglial cells.
- Identify the basic parts of a neuron.
- Contrast the structure of multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar neurons.
- Contrast the function of motor, interneurons, and sensory neurons.
- Distinguish between neuroglial cells on the basis of function and location.
- Explain how nerve tissue regenerates and repairs.
- Relate polarizations to potentials.
- Describe the process of sending a signal down an axon, including reference to resting, graded, and action potentials.
- Describe the process of sending a signal across a synapse, including reference to summation.
- Match neurotransmitters to their functions.
- Describe the functions of the major parts of the brain and spinal cord.
- Identify the major nerves, and parts of the brain and spinal cord, as specified by the master A&P I list (maintained by lead faculty).
- Describe the basic pathway of a reflex arc.
- Describe the organizational divisions of the nervous system.
- Describe differences in nerve origin, neurotransmitters, receptors, and types of reflexes between the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions.
- Define selected types of sensory receptors.
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