CHEM 105 - Survey of General Chemistry
4 Credit: (3 lecture, 2 lab, 0 clinical) 5 Contact Hours: [Reading Level 3 and Writing Level 3 and Math Level 4 ]
Fundamental principles and laws and theories of general inorganic chemistry will be covered. Included are the metric system, nomenclature, chemical bonding, the mole concept, gases, liquids, solids, solutions, atomic structure, acids/bases, chemical equilibrium and nuclear chemistry. Concurrent laboratory/workshop sessions include exercises illustrating the principles discussed in lecture.
OFFERED: fall and spring semesters
Course Goals/ Objectives/ Competencies:
Goal 1: Identify units of measurement used in science.
- Use significant figures when measuring and performing calculations.
- Apply the metric system prefixes.
- Properly measure length, area, and volume in correct units.
- Perform various conversions (dimensional analysis) using given conversion factors.
- Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative measurements.
- Differentiate between intensive and extensive physical properties.
Goal 2: Classify matter based on physical and chemical attributes.
- Compare and contrast homogeneous versus heterogeneous materials.
- Describe the differences between mixtures, solutions, and pure substances.
- Describe various methods of physical separation, including distillation, filtration, extraction, and chromatography.
- Apply the concept of specific heat to various problems.
- Contrast physical and chemical changes in matter.
- Using an energy level diagram, describe exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Goal 3: Describe the fundamental particles of an atom in terms of charge, mass and other properties.
- Differentiate between atomic mass and mass number.
- Describe the differences between isotopes of various atoms.
- Know the relative mass and charge of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and summarize the concept of half-life of a radioactive isotope.
- Explain how Rutherford was able to deduce the nuclear model of the atom.
- Recite the name and symbol for approximately 50 common elements.
- Determine the common charge associated with the main group ions.
- Differentiate between mono and polyatomic ions.
- Summarize the reasons for the placement of elements in the periodic table.
Goal 4: Explain the system of nomenclature for ionic and binary covalent compounds.
- Write formulas for binary and polyatomic ionic compounds containing main group cations.
- Write formulas for binary and polyatomic ionic compounds containing transition and multiple charged cations using both the roman numeral system and the “traditional” system.
- Write formulas for various acids.
Goal 5: Summarize the basic reactions for aqueous ionic substances and properly use the solubility rules.
- Write a complete balanced chemical equation from a word equation.
- Recognize and predict the products for double replacement, single replacement, and combustion of hydrocarbon reactions.
- Use the solubility rules to determine the physical states of the products of single and double replacement reactions.
- Recognize synthesis and decomposition reactions.
- Recognize oxidation-reduction reactions and determine the: substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent, reducing agent.
Goal 6: Apply the mole concept.
- Determine the molar mass of various substances.
- Perform various mole calculations (mass ↔mol, mass ↔ number of particles, mol ↔ number of particles).
- Perform percent composition problems.
- Determine empirical formulas from laboratory data.
- Determine molecular formulas from laboratory data.
Goal 7: Demonstrate stoichiometric techniques for various systems (gases, solids, aqueous solutions, liquids).
- Perform mole to mole, mole to mass, mass to mol, mass to mass problems.
- Perform limiting reactant problems and recognize both the limiting reactant and the excess reagent.
- Determine the percent yield for various stoichiometry problems.
Goal 8: Describe modern atomic theory and use it to predict periodic trends.
- Use the Bohr model of the atom to explain atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy.
- Compare and contrast between flame tests and Bright-line spectroscopy.
- Recite the electromagnetic spectrum from low to high energy, low to high frequency, and long to short wavelength. Know the colors of the visible spectrum.
- Utilize a variety of mathematical equations dealing with energy and quantum theory.
- Understand the importance of the DeBroglie wavelength in terms of quantum theory and the generation of Schrodinger’s equations.
- Write both entire and noble gas core electron configurations for atoms and ions.
- Predict various periodic trends (ionization energy, electronegativity, atom size, ion size) based on electron configuration and periodic table placement.
- Use quantum numbers to describe various electrons in an atom.
Goal 9: Apply the VSEPR Theory to determine molecular geometry.
- Write Lewis electron-dot diagrams and Lewis structures for various molecules.
- Recognize molecules with expanded octets.
- Be able to draw molecules with the following three-dimensional shapes, and know the relative bond anbles: linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramid, angular.
- Explain the concept of a “polar bond” and a “polar molecule”. Be able to predict molecular polarity.
- Describe the various van der Waal’s forces of attraction (dipole-dipole, H-bonding, dipole-induced-dipole, London forces).
Goal 10: Characterize the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of their physical properties.
- Apply the Kinetic Molecular Theory to gases.
- Describe the physical properties of gases in terms of volume, pressure, and temperature by using the various gas laws, including Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, the Ideal Gas Law, Dalton’s Law, and Avogadro’s Law.
- Use the concept of the Molar Volume of a gas in stoichiometric problems.
- Using a Heating-Cooling Curve, describe the energy changes which occur as a pure substance goes through phase changes.
- Explain how vapor pressure and atmospheric pressure relate to the boiling of a pure liquid.
Goal 11: Express solution concentration in terms of molarity and molality.
- Describe how to prepare solutions of various concentrations (both molar and molal) by the dilution method and starting from a solid reagent.
- Determine the concentration (molar and molal) of given solutions.
- Understand how stoichiometry can be used to solve titration problems.
- Differentiate between various colligative properties (freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure) and describe the molecular interactions which result in these properties.
Goal 12: Solve acid-base and chemical equilibrium problems.
- Provide the definition for a Bronsted-Lowery and an Arrhenius acid and base and be able to recognize each.
- Define conjugate acids and bases.
- Describe the concept of pH in both words and mathematically.
- Calculate the pH of strong acids and bases.
- Calculate the concentration (molarity) of acids and bases at 25oC using the auto-ionization constant of water, kw.
- Explain the concept of chemical equilibrium and use LeChatelier’s Principle to predict the effects of changes in pressure, concentration, and temperature to a system at equilibrium.
- Write out equilibrium expressions for homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria.
- Determine the value of equilibrium constants and explain their significance.
- Determine concentrations/partial pressures for equilibrium systems.
Goal 13: Develop an understanding of chemical thermodynamics.
- Differentiate processes classified as exo or endothermic.
- Perform calculations to determine enthalpy values for various chemical processes.
Goal 14: Be familiar with proper laboratory techniques.
- Demonstrate how to properly use the correct laboratory equipment for a specific laboratory task.
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