CHEM 221 - College Chemistry II
5 Credit: (4 lecture, 2 lab, 0 clinical) 6 Contact Hours: [CHEM 220 ]
This continuation of CHEM 220 , includes chemical bonding, liquids and solids, properties of solutions, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, acid-base chemistry, entropy and free energy, electrochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Laboratory sessions will involve experiments illustrating topics discussed in lecture. This course is a prerequisite for higher-level chemistry courses.
OFFERED: spring semesters
Course Goals/ Objectives/ Competencies:
Goal 1: Investigate properties of liquids and solids.
- Distinguish between the various types of van der Waal’s Forces by diagramming and explaining the formation of bonds formed between polar &/or nonpolar molecules.
- Explain how the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are related to the type of van der Waal’s force at the molecular level.
- Summarize the type of atomic bonding between atoms in crystalline solids of ionic, atomic, and molecular nature.
- Demonstrate an understanding of the thermodynamic process involved with phase changes in matter.
- Use the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to calculate the unknown variable in the equation, which may include temperature, vapor pressure, or heats of phase change.
- Describe the features of a Phase Diagram and explain the various terminology (triple point, critical point, supercritical fluid, etc.).
Goal 2: Describe properties of solutions.
- Distinguish between the various methods of expressing solution concentration and be able to perform calculations for each type.
- Discriminate between the various types of colligative properties and be able to calculate vapor pressures (using Raoult’s Law), freezing / boiling points, and osmotic pressures for various solutions.
- Interpret a vapor pressure diagram.
- Determine the molecular weight of an unknown substance using freezing point depression in a laboratory environment.
Goal 3: Describe chemical processes in terms of chemical kinetics.
- Identify and/or explain the four factors which affect the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs.
- Distinguish between a “rate law” and an “integrated rate law”.
- Determine the reaction order of a particular chemical reaction and use the integrated rate law to calculate the half-life or the new concentration at time, t. for 1st, 2nd, and zero order processes.
- Use the visible spectrophotometer to determine the rate constant of a chemical reaction in a laboratory environment.
- Determine the molecularity and rate law of a given elementary step and apply that knowledge to write a possible reaction mechanism.
- Apply the Arrhenius Equation to determine the activation energy of a particular chemical reaction in both a lecture and laboratory environment.
- Describe the features of a catalyst and differentiate between homo and heterogeneous catalysis.
Goal 4: Summarize chemical equilibrium.
- Write out Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions for a variety of chemical reactions.
- Solve a variety of equilibrium problems.
- Determine the potential shift in equilibrium by using Q, the Reaction Quotient.
- Apply Le Chatelier’s Principle to describe the effects of various stresses placed on a system at equilibrium.
- Determine the value of an equilibrium constant for a particular chemical reaction in a laboratory environment.
Goal 5: Describe properties/characteristics of acids and bases.
- Differentiate between the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis definitions of acids and bases.
- Describe Bronsted-Lowry conjugate acid / base pairs.
- Explain the concept of pH and pOH.
- Differentiate between strong and weak acids / bases.
- Calculate the pH, pOH, and hydronium ion and hydroxide ion concentrations for both strong and weak acids and bases.
- Calculate ka and kb values for weak acids and bases.
- Recognize the acidic or basic properties of various salts.
- Preform calculations to prepare a buffer solution.
- Calculate pH and pOH of various solution concentrations of salts.
- Determine the concentration of an acid solution by preparing and standardizing a sodium hydroxide solution and performing a titration in a laboratory situation.
Goal 6: Apply concepts of chemical equilibrium to aqueous solutions.
- Evaluate a variety of solubility product constant (Ksp) problems to determine the solubilities of various salts.
- Use Ksp and Q (the reaction quotient) to predict aqueous solubility of salts.
- Describe the “common ion effect” in relation to the buffering capacity of various solutions.
Goal 7: Determine the Free Energy of a system.
- Explain entropy as it relates to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.
- Calculate Free Energy (Gibb’s) for a variety of chemical systems.
- Preform Free Energy calculations at non-standard pressures and solving equilibrium problems.
Goal 8: Summarize electrochemisty.
- Determine the oxidation state of an element in a compound.
- Describe the process of oxidation and reduction and distinguish between the oxidizing and reducing agents, and the oxidized and reduced species.
- Write balanced chemical ½- reactions describing the oxidation and reduction processes occurring in REDOX reactions.
- Describe the set-up and physical process involved in a Galvonic (Voltaic) cell.
- Using the chart of Standard Reduction Potentials, calculate the Standard Cell Potential (Ecell) of various voltaic cells.
- Use the Nernst Equation to calculate the Cell Potential under non-standard conditions.
- Determine the value of Gibbs Free Energy for various electrochemical cells.
Goal 9: Develop a qualitative and quantitative understanding of nuclear chemistry.
- Describe the nucleus of an atom in terms of density, energy, and subatomic particles using nuclear configuration.
- Identify factors influencing the stability of nuclides and predict the type of decay based on the zone of stability.
- Write decay reactions for the following nuclear emissions: alpha, spontaneous fission, beta, gamma, positron, and electron capture.
- Recite various uses of radioisotopes.
- Describe the use and operation of a Geiger-Muller Counter.
- Derive the half-life formula from the first order integrated rate law.
- Solve a variety of half-life problems using first order kinetics.
- Describe fission and fusion in terms of the mass defect and Einstein’s E=mc2 equation.
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