2023-2024 Catalog 
    Nov 29, 2023  
2023-2024 Catalog
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BIOL 105 - Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

4 Credit: (3 lecture, 2 lab, 0 clinical) 5 Contact Hours:

The overall objective of BIOL105 is to introduce the principles and processes of biology through the study of the human organism. Students gain an understanding of how the human body functions through a detailed study of each organ system that comprises the human body. This course gives students a perspective of how the human body maintains homeostasis through the interaction of organ system functions. Current topics in health sciences, nutrition, biology and medicine are discussed as they pertain to specific organ systems. Laboratory exercises include dissection and physiological experiments pertinent to the topics covered. Students have an option to observe and use a human cadaver.
OFFERED: every semester

Course Goals/ Objectives/ Competencies:
Goal 1:  Identify all the anatomical structures listed in the BIOL105 Master List.


  1. Identify body directional terms, body cavities and anatomical terms
  2. Identify structures of the cell membrane (per BIOL105 Master List)
  3. Identify the major organelles of a cell (per BIOL105 Master List)
  4. Identify the general and specific tissues specified in the BIOL105 Master List
  5. Identify the three layers of the skin and corresponding parts (BIOL105 Master List)
  6. Locate and identify the bones and the major features of the bones that compose the skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, pectoral girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle, and lower limb
  7. Identify the major parts of a skeletal muscle fiber
  8. Identify and locate the major skeletal muscles of each body region
  9. Identify the structural components of neurons, nerves and the brain
  10. Identify the major endocrine glands
  11. Identify the specified blood vessels and heart parts (cardiovascular system)
  12. Identify the organs of the respiratory system
  13. Identify the organs of the urinary system
  14. Identify the glands and organs of the digestive system
  15. Identify the parts of the reproductive system 

Goal 2:  Explain the basic physiological processes of the human body.


  1. Define anatomy and physiology
  2. Describe the organization of the human body and its systems
  3. Define the characteristics and requirements of life
  4. Describe homeostasis
  5. Describe the basic atomic structure using the periodic table
  6. Describe how atomic structure determines how atoms interact (bonding)
  7. Define isotope and ion
  8. Explain how ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds affect body function
  9. Describe the concept of pH
  10. Describe the four organic macromolecules and their building blocks
  11. Explain how the structure of a cell membrane makes its functions possible
  12. Explain how substances move in and out of cells
  13. Describe the cell cycle
  14. Describe how DNA molecules store and replicate genetic information
  15. Describe the steps of protein synthesis
  16. Explain how two differentiated cell types can have the same genetic information but different appearances and functions
  17. Briefly explain the function of metabolism
  18. Describe how enzymes control metabolic functions
  19. Explain how cellular respiration of glucose releases chemical energy
  20. Describe the general characteristics and functions of the four specific tissue types.
  21. Describe cell junctions
  22. Differentiate between the types of glands
  23. Describe the function of tissue membranes
  24. Summarize the factors that determine skin color
  25. List the general functions of the skin
  26. Explain how the skin helps regulate body temperature
  27. Describe the functions of the skeletal system
  28. Describe the macroscopic and microscopic structure of a long bone
  29. Explain how bones develop and grow
  30. Identify the different types of synovial joints and their movements
  31. Describe the function of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissues
  32. Identify the major parts of a skeletal muscle fiber
  33. Describe how muscles contract and relax
  34. Describe how muscles get, store and use energy
  35. Explain how muscles work with tendons to move the body
  36. Distinguish between central and peripheral nervous systems
  37. Describe the general structure of a neuron
  38. Describe the events that lead to the generation of an action potential
  39. Compare nerve impulse conduction in myelinated and unmyelinated neurons
  40. Distinguish between sensory, interneuron and motor neurons.
  41. Describe the function of a reflex arc
  42. Describe the function of the parts of the brain and spinal cord
  43. Describe the coverings of the brain and spinal cord
  44. Describe the parts of the peripheral nervous system
  45. Contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  46. Describe the components of the endocrine system
  47. Define hormone and hormone action
  48. Name source, target and function of selected hormones
  49. Distinguish between protein and steroid hormone action
  50. Discuss how negative feedback mechanisms regulate hormonal secretions
  51. Describe the general characteristics of blood and its major functions
  52. Summarize the control of red blood cell production
  53. Distinguish between the functions of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets.
  54. Explain blood typing
  55. Trace the pathway of blood through the heart and the vessels
  56. Explain blood pressure and its controlling factors
  57. Describe how substances are exchanged at the capillary level
  58. Describe the general functions of the lymphatic system
  59. Describe how lymph fluid forms and is moved
  60. Distinguish between the three levels of immune defense
  61. Distinguish between active and passive immunity
  62. Describe the general functions of the digestive system
  63. Explain how the contents of the alimentary canal are mixed and moved
  64. Identify the function of enzymes secreted by the digestive organs
  65. Explain how the products of digestion are absorbed and transported
  66. Identify the general functions of the respiratory system
  67. Describe the functions of each organ of the respiratory system
  68. Explain the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration
  69. Explain how air and blood exchange gases
  70. List the ways blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
  71. List the general functions of the organs of the urinary system
  72. Describe a nephron and explain the functions of its major parts
  73. Discuss urine formation and how it is regulated
  74. Describe the components of normal urine
  75. Explain water and electrolyte balance
  76. Describe the function of the male and female primary and secondary sex organs
  77. Explain spermatogenesis and oogenesis
  78. Compare the ovarian and menstrual cycles
  79. Explain how hormones control the activities of the male and female reproductive organs
  80. Describe the major stages of development
  81. Describe the basic changes in the female occurring during pregnancy
  82. Explain the role of hormones in the birth process and milk production

Goal 3:  Demonstrate an understanding of the scientific process as used in human medicine.


  1. Define hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable and controls
  2. Describe the steps of the scientific process (method)
  3. List characteristics of good scientific methodology and experimentation
  4. Identify variables, controls and constants in a given experiment
  5. Interpret data presented in different formats (text, table, graph, etc.)
  6. Draw valid conclusions from data

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