2022-2023 Catalog 
    Feb 01, 2023  
2022-2023 Catalog
Add to Portfolio (opens a new window)

BIOL 203 - Anatomy & Physiology II

4 Credit: (3 lecture, 2 lab, 0 clinical) 5 Contact Hours: [BIOL 202 ]

This continuation of BIOL202 covers the digestive system, the endocrine system, the respiratory system, blood, the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system, the urinary system, water and electrolyte balance, the reproductive system and human genetics. Laboratory exercises are performed throughout the semester and related clinical applications and pathophysiology are discussed when appropriate. Homeostatic mechanisms pertinent to current lecture topics are emphasized and the course offers the opportunity to observe a human cadaver.
OFFERED: every semester

Course Goals/ Objectives/ Competencies:
Goal 1:  The student will explain how hormones function to maintain homeostasis during normal and diseased states. 


  1. Identify the locations of the major endocrine glands in pig, cadaver or diagram.
  2. Distinguish between protein and steroid hormones and how each function at the cellular level.
  3. Describe the source, target and function of selected hormones.
  4. Compare the different methods of hormone regulation.
  5. Describe selected diseases caused by hormonal imbalances.
  6. Describe the stress response.

Goal 2:  The student will explain how the blood, blood vessels and heart work together to maintain homeostasis.


  1. Describe the characteristics, functions and synthesis of the blood and blood cells.
  2. Explain how blood cells are produced and recycled.
  3. Describe how blood cells are counted and used in diagnosis of disease.
  4. Explain hemostasis.
  5. Identify selected blood diseases.
  6. Identify the major arteries and veins and heart parts (see Master List for BIOL203).
  7. Compare the structure of arteries and veins. 
  8. Relate capillary structure to function regarding nutrient exchange.
  9. Diagram blood flow through the heart and vessels.
  10. Describe electrical system of the heart and its regulation by the PNS and SNS.
  11. Describe cardiac output and its regulators.
  12. Describe the regulation of blood pressure.
  13. Describe how the cardiovascular system reacts to exercise.

Goal 3:  Students will describe how the lymphatic system functions to protect humans from disease.


  1. Define lymph and the various lymph organs.
  2. Describe the functions of lymph system.
  3. Compare nonspecific and specific immune responses.
  4. Describe cell mediated and antibody mediated immune responses.
  5. Define immunoglobulin, antigen and antibody.
  6. Compare primary and secondary immune responses.
  7. Explain selected immune system complications including allergic responses, organ rejection and autoimmune diseases.
  8. Discuss the basic vocabulary, types and genetics of cancer and cancer treatment.

Goal 4:  Students will explain the digestion, absorption and assimilation of food and how nutrients are utilized to maintain homeostasis.


  1. Identify the organs of the digestive system on the cadaver, pig or diagram (see Master List for BIOL203).
  2. Describe the function of each organ of the digestive system.
  3. Describe the structure and function of the alimentary canal.
  4. Describe the digestive enzymes and their functions.
  5. Describe the regulation of digestive secretions.
  6. Discuss digestive system reflexes, diseases and deviations of homeostasis.
  7. Differentiate between essential and nonessential nutrients.
  8. Describe the regulation of hunger and appetite.
  9. Describe the transport and absorption of the building blocks.
  10. Describe the metabolism of the building blocks at the cellular level.
  11. Describe energy balance, calorie and metabolic rate.
  12. Describe selected metabolic diseases and their causes.

Goal 5:  Students will describe how the respiratory system functions to maintain homeostasis. 


  1. Identify the respiratory organs on a given model or diagram (see Master List for BIOL203).
  2. Describe the function of the respiratory organs.
  3. Distinguish between ventilation and respiration.
  4. Measure vital capacity and other respiratory air volumes.
  5. Describe how breathing is controlled and regulated.
  6. Compare gas exchange in the alveoli to that in the tissue.
  7. Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried in the blood.
  8. Describe selected respiratory diseases and their causes.
  9. Describe spirometry.

Goal 6:  Students will describe the function of the kidneys by describing their role in maintaining fluid, pH and electrolyte homeostasis. 


  1. Identify the parts of the urinary system on cadaver, model or diagram.
  2. Describe the function of the urinary system organs.
  3. Describe the structure of a nephron.
  4. Describe the function, control and regulation of the pathway of blood/urine through the urinary system.
  5. Describe selected urinary disorders, diseases and their causes.
  6. Describe the role of the urinary system in maintaining water and electrolyte balance.
  7. Explain the role of the urinary system in maintaining pH.
  8. Describe the integration of the various body system responses when homeostasis is disrupted by diabetes mellitus type II.

Goal 7:  Students will contrast and compare the male and female reproductive organs and their functions as well as describe what happens during stages of development/pregnancy.


  1. Identify the male reproductive structures and describe the function of each.
  2. Identify the female reproductive structures and describe the function of each.
  3. Compare the development of sperm and egg.
  4. Diagram the ovarian and menstrual cycle.
  5. Describe the role of hormones in gonad development, puberty and sex characteristics.
  6. Trace the pathway of sperm from synthesis to fertilization.
  7. Describe fetal development (the stages), and the hormones involved during pregnancy.
  8. Describe the birthing process.
  9. Discuss infertility, contraception and disorders of the reproductive system.
  10. Explain the basics of genetics and inheritance (if time permits).

Goal 8: Demonstrate an understanding of the scientific method used in human/medical research.


  1. Define hypothesis and independent, dependent and control variables.
  2. List characteristics of good scientific methodology and experimentation.
  3. Perform the steps of the scientific method in a class experiment.
  4. Identify variables, controls and constants in a class experiment.
  5. Draw valid conclusions from collected data.
  6. Discuss applications of medical/human research.

Add to Portfolio (opens a new window)