2022-2023 Catalog 
    Oct 03, 2022  
2022-2023 Catalog
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CHEM 221 - College Chemistry II

5 Credit: (4 lecture, 2 lab, 0 clinical) 6 Contact Hours: [CHEM 220 ]

This continuation of CHEM 220 , includes chemical bonding, liquids and solids, properties of solutions, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, acid-base chemistry, entropy and free energy, electrochemistry, and nuclear chemistry.  Laboratory sessions will involve experiments illustrating topics discussed in lecture.  This course is a prerequisite for higher-level chemistry courses.
OFFERED: spring semesters

Course Goals/ Objectives/ Competencies:
Goal 1:  Investigate properties of liquids and solids.


  1. Distinguish between the various types of van der Waal’s Forces by diagramming and explaining the formation of bonds formed between polar &/or nonpolar molecules.
  2. Explain how the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are related to the type of van der Waal’s force at the molecular level.
  3. Summarize the type of atomic bonding between atoms in crystalline solids of ionic, atomic, and molecular nature.
  4. Demonstrate an understanding of the thermodynamic process involved with phase changes in matter.
  5. Use the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to calculate the unknown variable in the equation, which may include temperature, vapor pressure, or heats of phase change.
  6. Describe the features of a Phase Diagram and explain the various terminology (triple point, critical point, supercritical fluid, etc.).

Goal 2:  Describe properties of solutions.


  1. Distinguish between the various methods of expressing solution concentration and be able to perform calculations for each type.
  2. Discriminate between the various types of colligative properties and be able to calculate vapor pressures (using Raoult’s Law), freezing / boiling points, and osmotic pressures for various solutions.
  3. Interpret a vapor pressure diagram.
  4. Determine the molecular weight of an unknown substance using freezing point depression in a laboratory environment.

Goal 3:  Describe chemical processes in terms of chemical kinetics.


  1. Identify and/or explain the four factors which affect the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs.
  2. Distinguish between a “rate law” and an “integrated rate law”.
  3. Determine the reaction order of a particular chemical reaction and use the integrated rate law to calculate the half-life or the new concentration at time, t. for 1st, 2nd, and zero order processes.
  4. Use the visible spectrophotometer to determine the rate constant of a chemical reaction in a laboratory environment.
  5. Determine the molecularity and rate law of a given elementary step and apply that knowledge to write a possible reaction mechanism.
  6. Apply the Arrhenius Equation to determine the activation energy of a particular chemical reaction in both a lecture and laboratory environment.
  7. Describe the features of a catalyst and differentiate between homo and heterogeneous catalysis.

Goal 4:  Summarize chemical equilibrium.


  1. Write out Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions for a variety of chemical reactions.
  2. Solve a variety of equilibrium problems.
  3. Determine the potential shift in equilibrium by using Q, the Reaction Quotient.
  4. Apply Le Chatelier’s Principle to describe the effects of various stresses placed on a system at equilibrium.
  5. Determine the value of an equilibrium constant for a particular chemical reaction in a laboratory environment.

Goal 5:  Describe properties/characteristics of acids and bases.


  1. Differentiate between the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis definitions of acids and bases.
  2. Describe Bronsted-Lowry conjugate acid / base pairs.
  3. Explain the concept of pH and pOH.
  4. Differentiate between strong and weak acids / bases.
  5. Calculate the pH, pOH, and hydronium ion and hydroxide ion concentrations for both strong and weak acids and bases.
  6. Calculate ka and kb values for weak acids and bases.
  7. Recognize the acidic or basic properties of various salts.
  8. Preform calculations to prepare a buffer solution.
  9. Calculate pH and pOH of various solution concentrations of salts.
  10. Determine the concentration of an acid solution by preparing and standardizing a sodium hydroxide solution and performing a titration in a laboratory situation.

Goal 6:  Apply concepts of chemical equilibrium to aqueous solutions.


  1. Evaluate a variety of solubility product constant (Ksp) problems to determine the solubilities of various salts.
  2. Use Ksp and Q (the reaction quotient) to predict aqueous solubility of salts.
  3. Describe the “common ion effect” in relation to the buffering capacity of various solutions.

Goal 7:  Determine the Free Energy of a system.


  1. Explain entropy as it relates to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.
  2. Calculate Free Energy (Gibb’s) for a variety of chemical systems.
  3. Preform Free Energy calculations at non-standard pressures and solving equilibrium problems.

Goal 8:  Summarize electrochemisty.


  1. Determine the oxidation state of an element in a compound.
  2. Describe the process of oxidation and reduction and distinguish between the oxidizing and reducing agents, and the oxidized and reduced species.
  3. Write balanced chemical ½- reactions describing the oxidation and reduction processes occurring in REDOX reactions.
  4. Describe the set-up and physical process involved in a Galvonic (Voltaic) cell.
  5. Using the chart of Standard Reduction Potentials, calculate the Standard Cell Potential (Ecell) of various voltaic cells.
  6. Use the Nernst Equation to calculate the Cell Potential under non-standard conditions.
  7. Determine the value of Gibbs Free Energy for various electrochemical cells.

Goal 9:  Develop a qualitative and quantitative understanding of nuclear chemistry.


  1. Describe the nucleus of an atom in terms of density, energy, and subatomic particles using nuclear configuration.
  2. Identify factors influencing the stability of nuclides and predict the type of decay based on the zone of stability.
  3. Write decay reactions for the following nuclear emissions: alpha, spontaneous fission, beta, gamma, positron, and electron capture.
  4. Recite various uses of radioisotopes.
  5. Describe the use and operation of a Geiger-Muller Counter.
  6. Derive the half-life formula from the first order integrated rate law.
  7. Solve a variety of half-life problems using first order kinetics.
  8. Describe fission and fusion in terms of the mass defect and Einstein’s E=mc2 equation.

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